文章摘要
卫之奇.美国加州等湖泊流域管理及蓝藻治理[J].全球科技经济瞭望,2008,23(3):5~13
美国加州等湖泊流域管理及蓝藻治理
Lake and Watershed Management and Blue-green Algae Control in California and Other States of the United States
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 湖泊流域管理;污染蓝藻治理
英文关键词: watershed management, pollution, algae control
基金项目:
卫之奇
科学技术部,北京100862
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中文摘要:
      美国加利福尼亚州等地方有长期的湖泊流域管理规划、具体的工作方案、相应的经费预算和相对庞大的工作人员队伍.管理规划的重点在非点源污染.在制定规划中,特别是涉及到非点源污染时,注意广泛征求流域内农民、牧民、居民、机构、公司企业、当地政府等各方面的意见.对点源污染,科学设定排放标准,认真监测,严格执法.对非点源污染,以开展宣传教育为主,提高公众环境意识和责任感.最好的管理方案实质上是一种社区和公众积极参与的方案,重点在于调整和规范流域内公众日常生活的行为方式,达到减少对环境影响、实现长期治理的目的.
英文摘要:
      California and other states of the United States have long-term strategic initiatives, concrete working plans, relevant budget and a large number of staff for lake and watershed management. The key issues of the initiatives focus on nonpoint source pollution. In the process of formulation of the initiatives, especially when dealing with nonpoint source pollution, a lot of discussions are held with local farmers, herdsmen, residents, organizations, businesses, and local governments within a watershed. For point source pollution, the main approaches are to scientifically set up discharge permits, seriously carry out monitoring and assessment, and sternly enforce the regulations. For nonpoint source pollution, it is mainly centered on education to promote the public awareness for environment and responsibilities. In fact, the best management is to have the community and the public get actively involved, and help them to change and regulate their day-to-day life behaviors within a watershed so as to achieve the long-term management goals by making less human impacts on environment.
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