文章摘要
苏 楠.中美制造业战略比较研究及启示[J].全球科技经济瞭望,2019,34(5):1~10
中美制造业战略比较研究及启示
Comparative study and Enlightenment of Manufacturing Strategies of China and the United States
投稿时间:2019-04-15  修订日期:2019-04-15
DOI:10.3772/j.issn.1009-8623.2019.05.001
中文关键词: 美国;先进制造;制造业;制造强国;产业政策
英文关键词: USA; advanced manufacturing; manufacturing industry; the world power of manufacturing; industrial policy
基金项目:科技部科技创新战略研究专项“构建支撑现代化经济体系建设的创新政策体系重大问题研究”(ZLY201817);科技部科技创新战略研究专项“新兴产业发展与‘创新政策3.0’研究”(ZLY201709)。
作者单位
苏 楠  
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中文摘要:
      2018年 10月,美国发布了《先进制造领导力战略》,这是美国提出“制造业回归”之后的第二份制造业战略,也是中美贸易谈判关键时期发布的国家先进制造战略,对美国制造业部署具有重要指导意义,对我国制造强国建设具有参考价值。本文运用比较研究的方法对中美两国制造业战略进行了比较,在战略制定上,两国制造业战略均由多部门共同制定,但制定机制存在差异;在战略定位与目标上,两国均将制造业视为国家强盛的基石,但由于制造业发展阶段不同,两国制造业近期目标有所差异;在重点任务设置上,美国更关注面向未来的先进技术研发与应用、广泛的人力资本培育和全方位的供应链体系建设等;在战略实施方面,两国均通过多政策、多部门协同确保战略实施。为建设世界制造强国,我国需在不断完善战略实施策略、夯实创新能力、提高政策有效性和完善软环境等方面有所加强。
英文摘要:
      In October 2018, a document entitled“STRATEGY FOR AMERICAN LEADERSHIP IN ADVANCED MANUFACTURING” was issued. It’s the second manufacturing strategy after the plan of“the revitalization of manufacturing industry” was proposed, and also an important national advanced manufacturing strategy deployed during the critical period of Sino-U.S. trade negotiations.It has important guiding significance for the deployment of U.S. manufacturing industry and has reference value for our strong manufacturing country building. This paper compares manufacturing strategies between China and the United States.On strategy formulation, both manufacturing strategies were formulated jointly by multiple departments, but the formulation mechanism was different. On strategic position and objectives, both countries regarded manufacturing industry as the cornerstone of national prosperity, but due to the different stages of manufacturing development, the short-term objectives of manufacturing industry of the two countries are different. On key tasks, the United States pays more attention to the future-oriented research and development of advanced technology, extensive human capital cultivation and comprehensive supply chain system construction. On the implementation of the strategy, both countries ensure the implementation of the strategy through multi-policy and multi-sectoral collaboration. To make China to be a world power of manufacturing, we should continuously improve implementation tactics, consolidate innovation capability, improve policy effectiveness and perfect soft environment.
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